Outcomes After Cardiac Transplant for Wild Type Transthyretin Amyloidosis

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Abstract

Background

The true prevalence of heart failure due to wild type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is likely underestimated. There is a paucity of data with regard to the management of ATTRwt-related advanced heart failure and the natural history of extracardiac ATTRwt.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac transplant (HTx) for ATTRwt at a single institution. Comprehensive clinical data, including baseline hemodynamic and echocardiographic characteristics, and posttransplant outcomes, were obtained.

Results

Seven patients with ATTRwt underwent HTx between 2007 and 2015. All patients were male with a mean age of 66 ± 9. Patients had a reduced ejection fraction (mean, 37 ± 14%) and elevated filling pressures pre-HTx (mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 22 ± 7 mm Hg) before HTx. Three-year survival was 100%; 1 patient died of pancreatic cancer 45 months post-HTx (1 death per 30.8 patient-years). Oxygen consumption (Δ +6.8 ± 4.9 mL·kg−1·min−1) and 6-minute walk distances (Δ +189 ± 60 m) improved. Symptomatic gastrointestinal involvement (n = 2) and peripheral nerve involvement (n = 4) by ATTRwt developed late.

Conclusions

This is the first report of a series of ATTRwt patients receiving HTx in which excellent outcomes are demonstrated. Although cardiac death is averted, systemic manifestations of ATTRwt may develop posttransplantation.

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