Outcomes After Cardiac Transplant for Wild Type Transthyretin Amyloidosis

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BackgroundThe true prevalence of heart failure due to wild type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is likely underestimated. There is a paucity of data with regard to the management of ATTRwt-related advanced heart failure and the natural history of extracardiac ATTRwt.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac transplant (HTx) for ATTRwt at a single institution. Comprehensive clinical data, including baseline hemodynamic and echocardiographic characteristics, and posttransplant outcomes, were obtained.ResultsSeven patients with ATTRwt underwent HTx between 2007 and 2015. All patients were male with a mean age of 66 ± 9. Patients had a reduced ejection fraction (mean, 37 ± 14%) and elevated filling pressures pre-HTx (mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 22 ± 7 mm Hg) before HTx. Three-year survival was 100%; 1 patient died of pancreatic cancer 45 months post-HTx (1 death per 30.8 patient-years). Oxygen consumption (Δ +6.8 ± 4.9 mL·kg−1·min−1) and 6-minute walk distances (Δ +189 ± 60 m) improved. Symptomatic gastrointestinal involvement (n = 2) and peripheral nerve involvement (n = 4) by ATTRwt developed late.ConclusionsThis is the first report of a series of ATTRwt patients receiving HTx in which excellent outcomes are demonstrated. Although cardiac death is averted, systemic manifestations of ATTRwt may develop posttransplantation.

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