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Improvements in renal allograft outcomes have permitted kidney transplantation after prior kidney allograft failure as well as after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This study compares renal allograft outcomes in the 3 groups, that is, primary, repeat, and kidney after nonrenal solid organ transplantation, where transplant group was coded as a time-dependent variable.We retrospectively reviewed registry data for kidney transplant recipients at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011. We compared overall graft survival between the 3 groups using Cox regression modeling. We calculated 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival and half-lives for each group where feasible.The study cohort (N = 2014) consisted of group A (primary kidney transplant, n = 1578, with 7923.2 years of follow-up time), group B (repeat kidney transplant, n = 314, with 1566.7 years of follow-up time) and group C (kidney post-nonrenal solid organ transplant, n = 176, with 844.8 years of follow-up time). Of the 1578 patients in the primary kidney transplant group, 74 later received a repeat transplant and thus also have follow-up counted in the repeat kidney transplant group. The median follow-up was 56, 53, and 55 months, respectively. The 5-year actuarial and death-censored graft survival was 68.69%, 68.79%, and 66.48% and 65.53%, 67.68%, and 62.92%, respectively (P = 0.70). There was no difference in overall graft survival in the Cox-adjusted analysis (group B: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.26; P = 0.79; group C: odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.23; P = 0.76).The adjusted kidney graft survivals in the 3 groups were similar.