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Assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important in kidney transplantation. The aim was to develop a kidney transplant specific equation for estimating GFR and evaluate against published equations commonly used for GFR estimation in these patients.Adult kidney recipients (n = 594) were included, and blood samples were collected 10 weeks posttransplant. GFR was measured by 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance. Patients were randomized into a reference group (n = 297) to generate a new equation and a test group (n = 297) for comparing it with 7 alternative equations.Two thirds of the test group were males. The median (2.5-97.5 percentile) age was 52 (23-75) years, cystatin C, 1.63 (1.00-3.04) mg/L; creatinine, 117 (63-220) μmol/L; and measured GFR, 51 (29-78) mL/min per 1.73 m2. We also performed external evaluation in 133 recipients without the use of trimethoprim, using iohexol clearance for measured GFR. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was the most accurate of the creatinine-equations. The new equation, estimated GFR (eGFR) = 991.15 × (1.120sex/([age0.097] × [cystatin C0.306] × [creatinine0.527]); where sex is denoted: 0, female; 1, male, demonstrating a better accuracy with a low bias as well as good precision compared with reference equations. Trimethoprim did not influence the performance of the new equation.The new equation demonstrated superior accuracy, precision, and low bias. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was the most accurate of the creatinine-based equations.