A Successful Approach to Kidney Transplantation in Patients With Enteric (Secondary) Hyperoxaluria

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Abstract

Background

Enteric hyperoxaluria due to malabsorption may cause chronic oxalate nephropathy and lead to end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is challenging given the risk of recurrent calcium-oxalate deposition and nephrolithiasis.

Methods

We established a protocol to reduce plasma oxalic acid levels peritransplantation based on reduced intake and increased removal of oxalate. The outcomes of 10 kidney transplantation patients using this protocol are reported.

Results

Five patients received a living donor kidney and had immediate graft function. Five received a deceased donor kidney and had immediate (n = 1) or delayed graft function (n = 4). In patients with delayed graft function, the protocol was prolonged after transplantation. In 3 patients, our protocol was reinstituted because of late complications affecting graft function. One patient with high-output stoma and relatively low oxalate levels had lost her first kidney transplant because of recurrent oxalate depositions but now receives intravenous fluid at home on a routine basis 3 times per week to prevent dehydration. Patients are currently between 3 and 32 months after transplantation and all have a stable estimated glomerular filtration rate (mean, 51 ± 21 mL/min per 1.73 m2). In 4 of 8 patients who underwent for cause biopsies after transplantation oxalate depositions were found.

Conclusions

This is the first systematic description of kidney transplantation in a cohort of patients with enteric hyperoxaluria. Common complications after kidney transplantation impact long-term transplant function in these patients. With our protocol, kidney transplantation outcomes were favorable in this population with unfavorable transplantation prospects and even previous unsuccessful transplants.

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