Small vessel vasculitis commonly affects the kidney and can progress to end-stage renal disease. The goal of this study is to compare outcomes of patients who received a renal transplant as a result of small vessel vasculitis (group A) with those who received kidney transplants because of other causes (group B).Methods
This is a retrospective analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing registry data for adult primary kidney transplants from January 2000 to December 2014. Group A patients (N = 2196) were compared with a group B (N = 6588); groups were case matched for age, race, sex, donor type, and year of transplant in a 1:3 ratio.Results
Renal and patient survivals were better in the group A (P < 0.001). New-onset diabetes after transplant developed in 8.3% of the group A and 11.3% of group B (P < 0.001). Seventeen (0.8%) patients in group A developed recurrent disease. Of these, 7 patients had graft failure, 3 of which were due to disease recurrence. Group A patients had significantly higher risk of developing posttransplant solid organ malignancies (11.3% vs 9.3%, P = 0.006) and lymphoproliferative disorder (1.3% vs 0.8%, P = 0.026). Independent predictors of graft failure and patient mortality were recipients' morbid obesity, diabetes, age, and dialysis duration (hazard ratio of 1.7, 1.4, 1.1/10 years, and 1.1/year for graft failure, and 1.7, 1.7, 1.6/10 years and 1.1/year for patient mortality, respectively).Conclusions
Renal transplantation in patients with small vessel vasculitis has favorable long-term graft and patient outcomes with a low disease recurrence rate. However, they may have a higher risk of developing posttransplant malignancies.