Data on dialysis and renal transplantation (RT) after intestinal transplantation (IT) are sparse. Whether changes in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have modified these outcomes is unknown.Methods
Two hundred eighty-eight adult intestinal transplants performed between 1990 and 2014 at the University of Pittsburgh were analyzed for incidence, risk factors and outcomes after dialysis and RT. Cohort was divided into 3 eras based on immunosuppression and surgical technique (1990-1994, 1995-2001, and 2001-2014). Receiving RT, or dialysis for 90 days or longer was considered as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Results
During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, 71 (24.7%) patients required dialysis, 38 (13.2%) required long-term dialysis and 17 (6%) received RT after IT. One-, 3-, and 5-year ESRD risk was 2%, 7%, and 14%, respectively. No significant era-based differences were noted. Higher baseline creatinine (hazard ratio [HR], 3.40 per unit increase, P < 0.01) and use of liver containing grafts (HR, 2.01; P = 0.04) had an increased ESRD risk. Median patient survival after dialysis initiation was 6 months, with a 3-year survival of 21%. Any dialysis (HR, 12.74; 95% CI 8.46-19.20; P < 0.01) and ESRD (HR, 9.53; 95% CI, 5.87-15.49; P < 0.01) had higher mortality after adjusting for covariates. For renal after IT, 1- and 3-year kidney and patient survivals were 70% and 49%, respectively. All graft losses were from death with a functioning graft, primarily related to infectious complications (55%).Conclusions
In intestinal transplant recipients, renal failure requiring dialysis or RT is high and is associated with increased mortality. Additionally, the outcomes for kidney after IT are suboptimal due to death with a functioning graft.