Outcomes of Adult Intestinal Transplant Recipients Requiring Dialysis and Renal Transplantation

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Data on dialysis and renal transplantation (RT) after intestinal transplantation (IT) are sparse. Whether changes in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have modified these outcomes is unknown.


Two hundred eighty-eight adult intestinal transplants performed between 1990 and 2014 at the University of Pittsburgh were analyzed for incidence, risk factors and outcomes after dialysis and RT. Cohort was divided into 3 eras based on immunosuppression and surgical technique (1990-1994, 1995-2001, and 2001-2014). Receiving RT, or dialysis for 90 days or longer was considered as end-stage renal disease (ESRD).


During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, 71 (24.7%) patients required dialysis, 38 (13.2%) required long-term dialysis and 17 (6%) received RT after IT. One-, 3-, and 5-year ESRD risk was 2%, 7%, and 14%, respectively. No significant era-based differences were noted. Higher baseline creatinine (hazard ratio [HR], 3.40 per unit increase, P < 0.01) and use of liver containing grafts (HR, 2.01; P = 0.04) had an increased ESRD risk. Median patient survival after dialysis initiation was 6 months, with a 3-year survival of 21%. Any dialysis (HR, 12.74; 95% CI 8.46-19.20; P < 0.01) and ESRD (HR, 9.53; 95% CI, 5.87-15.49; P < 0.01) had higher mortality after adjusting for covariates. For renal after IT, 1- and 3-year kidney and patient survivals were 70% and 49%, respectively. All graft losses were from death with a functioning graft, primarily related to infectious complications (55%).


In intestinal transplant recipients, renal failure requiring dialysis or RT is high and is associated with increased mortality. Additionally, the outcomes for kidney after IT are suboptimal due to death with a functioning graft.

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