Unilateral Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction Assessed by Biphasic Computed Tomographic Volumetry in Bilateral Living-donor Lobar Lung Transplantation

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Early diagnosis of unilateral chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is difficult because the unaffected contralateral lung functions as a reservoir in bilateral living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). We previously reported the usefulness of 133Xe ventilation scintigraphy for detection of unilateral change, but the supply of 133Xe has been stopped globally. The present study aimed to examine the usefulness of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (I/E CT) volumetry for detection of unilateral change in CLAD patients.


This was a retrospective single-center, observational study using prospectively collected data. A total of 58 patients who underwent bilateral LDLLT from August 2008 to February 2017 were analyzed. Respiratory function tests, I/E CT were prospectively conducted. ΔLung volume was defined as the value obtained by subtracting expiratory lung volume from inspiratory lung volume.


Fourteen (24%) cases were clinically diagnosed with CLAD, of which 10 (71%) were diagnosed as unilateral CLAD. ΔLung volume of bilateral lungs strongly correlated with forced vital capacity (r = 0.92, P < 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). Regardless the phenotypes (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or restrictive allograft syndrome) of CLAD, Δlung volume onset/baseline significantly decreased compared with that in the non-CLAD group. Among the 10 unilateral CLAD patients, 3 with clinically suspected unilateral rejection yet did not show a 20% decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second. In 2 of these, Δlung volume of unilateral lungs on the rejection side decreased by 20% or more.


Our findings suggest that I/E CT volumetry may be useful for assessment and early diagnosis of unilateral CLAD after bilateral LDLLT.

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