Prevalence, incidence, and residual risks for transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2 infection among Chinese blood donors
There are little data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, incidence, or residual risks for transfusion-transmitted HIV infection among Chinese blood donors.Study Design and Methods
Donations from five Chinese blood centers in 2008 to 2010 were screened using two rounds of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-HIV-1/2. A reactive result in either or both rounds led to Western blot confirmatory testing. HIV prevalence among first-time donors and incidence among repeat donors were examined. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis examined correlates of HIV confirmatory status among first-time donors. Residual risks were evaluated based on incidence among repeat donors.Results
Among 821,320 donations, 40% came from repeat donors. A total of 1837 (0.34%) first-time and 577 (0.17%) repeat donations screened reactive, among which 1310 and 419 were tested by Western blot. A total of 233 (17.7%) first-time and 44 (10.5%) repeat donations were confirmed positive. Prevalence was 66 infections per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59-74) first-time donors. Incidence was 9 of 100,000 (95% CI, 7-12) person-years among repeat donors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicates that first-time donors 26 to 45 years old were 1.6 to 1.8 times likely to be HIV positive than those 25 years and younger. Donors with some college or above education were less likely to be HIV positive than those with middle school education, odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.35 to 0.60. Minorities were 1.5 times likely to be HIV positive than Han majority donors (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1). HIV residual risk was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.2-12.5) infections per million whole blood donations.Conclusion
Despite the declining HIV epidemic in China, estimated residual risks for transfusion-transmitted HIV infection are still high.