Exercise Interventions for Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Hormone Therapy: Systematic Review

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Prostate cancer survivors (PCS) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience adverse effects that negatively affect physical function and quality of life. Exercise may ameliorate those treatment adverse effects, and effective, scalable interventions to increase exercise behaviors are needed. The objective of our review is to evaluate both the efficacy and the implementation methods of exercise interventions for PCS receiving ADT. We searched MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through May 2016. Randomized controlled trials of exercise intervention PCS receiving ADT were included. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (#CRD42015017348). Two authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion and risk of bias. Nine articles describing eight randomized controlled trials were included. The included interventions varied in training type (resistance or aerobic), length of intervention, dose of training (number of exercise sessions per week), and whether training was supervised or unsupervised. Despite heterogeneous interventions, varied measures, and generally short duration of training (average of 12 wk), improvements in fitness, symptoms, physical function, and quality of life were reported. The exercise training sessions were well attended, because few participants discontinued their participation in the exercise interventions, and attendance at supervised exercise sessions ranged from 74% to 94%. Self-reported compliance with the unsupervised exercise component was lower than that with the supervised sessions for trials that reported these data. In conclusion, supervised programs may be less scalable or accessible to populations with limited access. Future efforts should focus on delivery of programs that can adequately scale and contain the features of successful supervised interventions so that broad uptake by PCS on ADT can be achieved.

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