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We assessed the differential expression of a urinary panel of microRNAs (miRs) in terms of potential application as diagnostic markers of bladder cancer (BC) and relationship to bilharziasis. We investigated voided urine samples and blood from patients with BC (n = 188), benign bladder lesions (n = 88), and age-matched controls (n = 92). Five miRs (miR-210, miR-10b, miR-29c, miR-221, and miR-23a) were selected from previous microarray signature profiling (released by miR2Disease). Afterward, they were validated using polymerase chain reaction array. The expression levels of miR-210, miR-10b, and miR-29c in the urine samples were significantly higher in BC (P< 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that each miR had good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing patients with BC from patients without BC (miR-210, 71.3% and 91.1%; miR-10b, 80.9% and 91.1%; and miR-183, 71.3% and 88.9%). On combining the 3 miR detection data with the urinary cytology, the results sensitivity increased to 95.2%. Relative quantity mean rank of the miR-29c was significantly higher in the bilharzial-positive patients compared with bilharzial-negative patients. To conclude, urine miR-210, miR-10b, and miR-29c are promising tumor markers for BC: bilharzial and nonbilharzial.