Changes in Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Concentration in Patients with Trauma and Sepsis

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To better understand the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) after the inflammatory response.


Serum G-CSF concentrations were measured serially in 19 trauma and 15 sepsis patients. Changes in G-CSF concentration were compared with those in the neutrophil ratio, phagocytic and bactericidal activities, and other cytokines.

Measurements and Main Results

G-CSF concentrations in trauma patients were elevated on day 1, but quickly decreased within 7 days. G-CSF reached its maximum 3 hours after injury, parallel with peaks of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, but not of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In sepsis patients, G-CSF as well as TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were markedly elevated at diagnosis and remained high during the course of the illness. These levels decreased significantly in the 11 survivors. Up to 3 days after the trauma, nonsegmented neutrophil ratios were higher than those thereafter. Neutrophil phagocytic and bactericidal activities remained normal during the course of disease in both conditions.


These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in the maturation and maintenance of function of neutrophils during the inflammatory response to trauma and sepsis.

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