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Although patient blood management (PBM) programs clearly reduce transfusion overuse, the relative impact on red blood cell (RBC), plasma, and platelet (PLT) utilization is unclear.A retrospective analysis of electronic records was conducted at a medium-sized academic hospital to assess blood utilization for all inpatients admitted during 1-year periods before (n = 20,531) and after (n = 19,477) PBM efforts began in September 2014. Transfusion guideline compliance and overall utilization were assessed for RBCs, plasma, and PLTs. The primary PBM efforts included education on evidence-based transfusion guidelines, decision support in the computerized provider order entry system, and distribution of provider-specific reports showing comparison to peers for guideline compliance. Cost avoidance was determined by two methods (acquisition cost and activity-based cost), and clinical outcomes were compared during the two periods.For RBCs, orders outside hospital guidelines decreased (from 23.9% to 17.1%, p < 0.001), and utilization decreased by 12% (p < 0.035). For plasma and PLTs, both orders outside guidelines and utilization changed minimally. Overall cost avoidance was $181,887/year by acquisition cost (and from $582,039 to $873,058/year by activity-based cost), 93% of which was attributed to reduction in RBC utilization. Length of stay, morbidity, and mortality were unchanged.Our findings demonstrate a greater opportunity for reducing RBC compared to plasma and PLT utilization. A properly implemented PBM program has potential to reduce unnecessary transfusions and their associated risk and costs, without compromising clinical outcomes.