The scuffing failure phenomenon of piston ring–cylinder liner is studied theoretically and experimentally. The load and bulk temperature when scuffing failure occurs are measured under different engine speed, lubricant, and environmental temperature in a bench test. Based on the experimental results, the asperity capacity when scuffing occurs is evaluated. Surface contact temperature is determined with the measured bulk temperature and the surface flash temperature calculated by Blok theory. The scuffing failure threshold of piston ring–cylinder liner is established by using specific oil film thickness.