Nosocomial bloodstream infections in a nationwide study: comparison between solid organ transplant patients and the general population

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Abstract

Background.

The incidence of bloodstream infection (BSI) varies according to the transplanted organ. Mortality can be as high as 24%, with a significant impact on graft survival. Transplantation is a risk factor for multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, but comparison with a non-transplanted population in a single large cohort has not been described.

Methods.

This is a prospective nationwide study (16 centers) reporting data on 2364 monomicrobial nosocomial BSIs, comparing 83 episodes in solid organ transplant patients with 2447 BSIs occurring in the general hospital population.

Results.

The prevalence of groups of infecting organisms (gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi) was similar between transplant patients and the general population and a similar crude mortality rate was observed (34.9% in transplant vs. 43.3% in non-transplant patients). Staphylococcus aureus was the single most frequently isolated organism in both groups, and Acinetobacter species was more frequently isolated in the general population. Regarding MDR organisms, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species resistant to cefepime, as well as Acinetobacter species resistant to meropenem, were significantly more frequent in transplant patients.

Conclusion.

Antimicrobial resistance is higher, particularly among gram-negative bacteria in the transplant population, although the overall mortality rate between transplant and non-transplant patients with nosocomial BSI is similar.

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