Incidence and risk factors for hemorrhagic cystitis in unmanipulated haploidentical transplant recipients

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Abstract

Background:

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common complication after hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) associated with intensity of the conditioning regimen, cyclophosphamide (Cy) therapy, and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection.

Methods:

We analyzed 33 consecutive haploidentical (haplo) HSCT recipients transplanted for hematologic diseases. Eleven patients had a previous transplant. Median follow-up was 11 months. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine + mycophenolate mofetil and post-HSCT Cy.

Results:

Thirty-two of 33 patients achieved neutrophil recovery. Cumulative incidence (CI) of platelet recovery was 65%. CI grade II–IV acute GVHD was 44%. Twenty patients developed HC in a median time of 38 days. CI of HC at day 180 was 62%. BKPyV was positive in blood and urine of 91% of patients at HC onset. HC resolved in 18/20 patients. Factors associated with HC were previous transplant (P = 0.01) and occurrence of cytomegalovirus reactivation before HC (P = 0.05). Grade II–IV acute GVHD was not associated with HC (P = 0.62). CI of day 180 viral infections was 73%. Two-year overall survival (OS) was 50%; HC did not impact OS (P = 0.29).

Conclusion:

The incidence of HC after haplo with post-HSCT Cy is high and is associated with morbidity, especially in high-risk patients such as those with a previous transplant history and with impaired immune reconstitution.

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