Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the adrenal gland after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report of two cases and literature review

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Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is one of the life-threatening complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT), and it is associated almost exclusively with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). We herein report 2 cases of EBV-associated PTLD after allogeneic HSCT localized in the adrenal gland. Both patients developed adrenal tumor within 3 months after HSCT and were successfully treated with rituximab or tapering immunosuppressive agents. Both remained alive without recurrence. A literature review revealed 12 reported cases of PTLD involving the adrenal gland, but the adrenal gland was involved as one of the lesions of advanced-stage PTLD after SOT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show cases of isolated EBV-associated adrenal PTLD after HSCT. PTLD should be recognized as one of the causes of isolated adrenal tumor after HSCT.

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