Epidemiology of invasive respiratory disease caused by emerging non-Aspergillusmolds in lung transplant recipients

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Our aim was to assess the impact of positive cultures for non-Aspergillus molds on the risk of progression to invasive fungal infection (IFI), and the effect of prophylactic nebulized liposomal amphotericin B (n-LAB) on these pathogens.


This was an observational study (2003–2013) including lung transplant recipients (LTR) receiving lifetime n-LAB prophylaxis, in whom non-Aspergillus molds were isolated on respiratory culture before and after transplantation (minimum 1-year follow-up).


We studied 412 patients, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 2.56 years (interquartile range 1.01–4.65). Pre- and post-transplantation respiratory samples were frequently positive for non-Aspergillus molds (11.9% and 16.9% of LTR respectively). Post transplantation, 10 (2.42%) patients developed non-Aspergillus mold infection (4 Scedosporium species, 4 Purpureocillium species, 1 Penicillium species, and 1 Scopulariopsis species); 5 (1.21%) had IFI, with 60% IFI-related mortality. Non-Aspergillus molds with intrinsic amphotericin B (AB) resistance were more commonly isolated in bronchoscopy samples than AB-variably sensitive or AB-sensitive molds (54.5% vs. 25%, P = 0.04) and were associated with a higher risk of infection (56.3% vs. 1.3%%, P < 0.01).


In LTR undergoing n-LAB prophylaxis, pre- and post-transplantation isolation of non-Aspergillus molds is frequent, but IFI incidence (1.21%) is low. Purpureocillium is an emerging mold. AB-resistant non-Aspergillus species were found more often in bronchoscopy samples and were associated with a higher risk of infection.

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