Miltenberger blood group typing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis in Thai population

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Abstract

Objectives

To develop reliable and convenient methods for Miltenberger (Mia) blood group typing.

Aim

To apply real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis to Mia blood group typing.

Background

The Mia blood group is the collective set of glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi(a+) blood is common among East Asians and is also found in the Thai population. Incompatible Mia blood transfusions pose the risk of life-threatening haemolysis; therefore, Mia blood group typing is necessary in ethnicities where the Mia blood group is prevalent.

Methods/Materials

One hundred and forty-three blood samples from Thai blood donors were used in the study. The samples included 50 Mi(a+) samples and 93 Mi(a−) samples, which were defined by serology. The samples were typed by Mia typing qPCR, and 50 Mi(a+) samples were sequenced to identify the Mia subtypes. Mia subtyping qPCR was performed to define GP.Mur. Both Mia typing and Mia subtyping were tested on a conventional PCR platform.

Results

The results of Mia typing qPCR were all concordant with serology. Sequencing of the 50 Mi(a+) samples revealed 47 GP.Mur samples and 3 GP.Hop or Bun samples. Mia subtyping qPCR was the supplementary test used to further define GP.Mur from other Mia subtypes. Both Mia typing and Mia subtyping performed well using a conventional PCR platform.

Conclusion

Mia typing qPCR correctly identified Mia blood groups in a Thai population with the feasibility of Mia subtype discrimination, and Mia subtyping qPCR was able to further define GP.Mur from other Mia subtypes.

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