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Almost all babies suffering from congenital toxoplasmosis, if undiagnosed and untreated, will develop visual or neurological impairments by adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in two hospitals from Uberlândia, Brazil. A total of 805 serum samples of cord blood were collected, 500 from public hospital and 305 from private hospital, and all patients answered a questionnaire about pregnancy and newborns. ELISA was accomplished to detect IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and positive sera were re-tested to verify specific IgM and IgA antibodies in a capture ELISA. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii was 51.6 per cent in the hospitals, while the frequency of congenital toxoplasmosis was 0.5 per cent, with specific IgM and/or IgA antibodies. The main clinical alteration was chorioretinitis (an inflammatory process of the retina and uveal tract). The high seroprevalence in this population and expressive rate of congenital disease show the requirement of screening programmes for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.