Lymphadenovarix of the Head–Neck region—A Rare Presentation of Bancroftian Filariasis

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Cystic swellings of the neck in children have limited differential diagnoses, often either lymphatic or vascular malformations. Other cystic inflammations can be the result of tuberculous abscesses, suppurated lymph nodes and actinomycosis. Microfilaria causing lmphadenovarix of head–neck region has not yet been described in the literature. A 10-year-old Indian boy presented with an asymptomatic cystic neck mass of 8 months duration. Aspiration of the swelling demonstrated numerous Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria and the patient responded well to 6 weeks of daily anti-filarial treatment using diethylcarbamazine citrate (6mg kg−1 day−1). This appears to be the first report of microfilariae-associated lymphadenovarix of head–neck region. Though rare, filariasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for aberrant swellings where lymphatic filarids are endemic.

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