Although bamboo is one of the most important woody crops in Asia, information on its genome is still very limited. To investigate the relationship among Poaceae members and to understand the mechanism of albino mutant generation in vitro, the complete chloroplast genome of two economically important bamboo species, Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro and Bambusa oldhamii Munro, was determined employing a strategy that involved polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using 443 novel primers designed to amplify the chloroplast genome of these two species. The lengths of the B. oldhamii and D. latiflorus chloroplast genomes are 139,350 and 139,365 bp, respectively. The organization structure and the gene order of these two bamboos are identical to other members of Poaceae. Highly conserved chloroplast genomes of Poaceae facilitated sequencing by the PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis using both chloroplast genomes confirmed the results obtained from studies on chromosome number and reproductive organ morphology. There are 23 gaps, insertions/deletions > 100 bp, in the chloroplast genomes of 10 genera of Poaceae compared in this study. The phylogenetic distribution of these gaps corresponds to their taxonomic placement. The sequences of these two chloroplast genomes provide useful information for studying bamboo evolution, ecology and biotechnology.