Heart failure (HF) is associated with myocardial energy metabolic abnormality. Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is an important transcriptional cofactor for maintaining energy balance in high–oxygen consumption tissues. However, the role of RIP140 in the pathologic processes of HF remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of RIP140 in mitochondrial and cardiac functions in rodent hearts under myocardial infarction (MI) stress. MI was created by a permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and exogenous expression of RIP140 by adenovirus (Ad) vector delivery. Four weeks after MI or Ad-RIP140 treatment, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamics analyses, and the mitochondrial function was determined by mitochondrial genes expression, biogenesis, and respiration rates. In Ad-RIP140 or MI group, a subset of metabolic genes changed, accompanied with slight reductions in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration rates but no change in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Cardiac malfunction was compensated. However, under MI stress, rats overexpressing RIP140 exhibited greater repressions in mitochondrial genes, state 3 respiration rates, respiration control ratio, and ATP content and had further deteriorated cardiac malfunction. In conclusion, RIP140 overexpression leads to comparable cardiac function as resulted from MI, but RIP140 aggravates metabolic repression, mitochondrial malfunction, and further accelerates the transition to HF in response to MI stress.