This work aimed to explore the link between angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) and weight loss after metabolic surgery. In the cross-sectional study (n = 100), circulating ANGPTL8 concentrations were significantly lower in morbidly obese than in lean subjects, and strikingly lower in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conversely, ANGPTL8 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was higher in morbidly obese patients, particularly in those with T2DM, whereas its expression in visceral adipose tissue was unchanged. The main predictors for circulating levels of ANGPTL8 were BMI and T2DM, whereas ANGPTL8 expression in SAT was determined by the presence of T2DM. The prospective cohort studies before and 1 year after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients with (n = 45) and without (n = 30) T2DM, revealed a significant increase of circulating ANGPTL8 levels 1 year after the bariatric surgery. Intriguingly, this increment, which was predicted by basal ANGPTL8 concentrations, appeared as a determinant of T2DM remission. In conclusion, circulating ANGPTL8 levels have an inverse relationship with SAT expression. Low basal levels of ANGPTL8 rebound after bariatric surgery. The increment in ANGPTL8 concentrations at 1 month of follow-up after weight loss emerged as a significant predictor of the T2DM remission at 1 year of follow-up.