Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the constellation of metabolic risk factors that might foster development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance play a prominent role among all metabolic traits of MetS. Because intervention including weight loss can reduce these morbidity and mortality in MetS, early detection of the severity and complications of MetS could be useful. Recent advances in imaging modalities have provided significant insight into the development and progression of abdominal obesity and insulin resistance, as well as target organ injuries. The purpose of this review is to summarize advances in diagnostic imaging modalities in MetS that can be applied for evaluating each components and target organs. This may help in early detection, monitoring target organ injury, and in turn developing novel therapeutic target to alleviate and avert them.