Predictors of in-hospital mortality and length of stay in community-acquired pneumonia: a 5-year multi-centre case control study of adults in a developing country

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Abstract

Background

We investigated predictors of in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Nigeria in order to provide recommendations to improve CAP outcomes in developing countries.

Methods

This was a multi-centre case control study of patients ≥18 years who were admitted with CAP between 2008 and 2012. Case notes of 100 consecutive patients who died (cases) and random sample of 300 patients discharged (controls) were selected.

Results

Mean ages were 55.4±19.6 (cases) and 49.3±19.2 (controls). Independent predictors of mortality were CURB-65 score ≥3: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 24.3, late presentation: aOR 8.6, co-morbidity: aOR 3.9, delayed first dose antibiotics (>4 hours): aOR 3.5, need for supplemental oxygen: aOR 4.9, multilobar pneumonia: aOR 4.0, non-pneumococcal aetiology: aOR 6.5, anaemia: aOR 3.8 and hyperglycemia: aOR 8.6. CURB-65 ≥3 predicted mortality with a high specificity (96.1%) but low sensitivity (75%); positive predictive value of 88.2% and negative predictive value of 90.8%. Care in hospital A and B: aOR 3.3 and 2.2 respectively, male gender aOR 2.1, co-morbidity aOR 3.0, anaemia aOR 2.1 and elevated serum creatinine aOR 6.3 independently predicted length of hospital stay >10 days among survivors.

Conclusions

Several modifiable patient-related and process-of-care factors predicted in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay among survivors. Our findings should be used to improve CAP outcomes in developing countries.

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