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To analyze the incidence of and the factors associated with shoulder pain in people with hemiplegia and to understand the effect of rehabilitation programs on the parameters of motor function and activity limitations in patients with and without hemiplegic shoulder pain.Patients in the initial 6-month period after stroke who were hospitalized in the physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic were included in the study. Patients were considered early rehabilitation entrants if they were admitted in the first 0 to 30 days after a stroke and late rehabilitation entrants if they were admitted 30 to 120 days after a stroke. Demographic and clinical features, complications, and medical histories of the patients were recorded. Upper extremity Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA), Frenchay Arm Test (FAT), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were applied to the patients on admission, at discharge, and after 1 month of follow-up.Twenty-one (38%) patients did not have shoulder pain, and 34 (62%) patients had decreased shoulder pain. Immobilization, duration of disease, and late rehabilitation were shown to be effective treatments for shoulder pain. The major risk factors were disease duration and poor initial motor function. In both groups, the FMA, FAT, and FIM scores showed significant changes. This improvement did not differ between the 2 groups.Duration of disease and low motor functional capacities have the most important impact on shoulder pain. In patients with and without shoulder pain, a systematic rehabilitation program is beneficial with respect to motor function and daily living activities.