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Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer in which the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been well established in limited-stage disease. We retrospectively reviewed a series of limitedstage small cell lung cancers treated with chemotherapy and thoracic and brain radiotherapy.A total of 124 patients affected by limited-stage small cell lung cancer has been treated over 10 years in our Institute. Fifty-three patients (42.8%) had concomitant radio-chemotherapy treatment and 71 patients (57.2%) a sequential treatment. Eighty-eight patients (70.9%) underwent an association of a platinum-derived drug (cisplatinum or carboplatinum) and etoposide. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned in all patients with histologically proven complete response to primary radio-chemotherapy.With a mean follow-up of 2.2 years, complete response was obtained in 50.8% of cases. We found a significant difference between different radio-chemotherapy association approaches (P = 0.007): percentages of overall survival were respectively 10.0%, 12.9% and 5.6% in early, late concomitant and sequential radiochemotherapy timing. Cranial prophylaxis did not seem to influence overall survival (P = 0.21) or disease-free survival for local relapse (P = 0.34).Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the best approach according to our experience. Our results show a benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation in distant metastasis-free survival.