The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between oxidative stress, haematology and iron profile in neonatal dairy calves. Serum and haemolysate malondialdehyde (MDA), serum total antioxidant capacity, thiol groups, iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and red blood cell (RBC) parameters were assessed in two groups: anaemic calves (n=14) and non-anaemic calves (n=16). Blood samples were collected from all of the calves within 24–48 hours after birth and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age. A significant decrease in serum iron amount and transferrin saturation value (P<0.05) and a significant increase in haemolysate MDA concentration (P<0.05) in the anaemic calves were observed, when compared with non-anaemic calves. Total antioxidant capacity and thiol groups showed a significant positive correlation with iron profile and RBC parameters (haematocrit and haemoglobin) in the anaemic calves at day 21 (P<0.05). On the other hand, the concentration of haemolysate MDA was inversely correlated with the value of serum total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05). The results of the present study revealed that anaemic calves showed more severe oxidative stress than non-anaemic calves. In addition, iron insufficiency may be linked to the impairment of antioxidant defence system and oxidative damage of erythrocytes in the neonatal calves.