The macaque endometrium undergoes dramatic morphologic and functional changes during the menstrual cycle that are nearly identical to those of the human endometrium. The sequential events that take place in the endometrium are mainly driven by the ovarian steroids and their respective receptors. To be able to interpret the changes and effects induced by mammalian or synthetic hormones and other compounds that could have influence on the hormonal status of the animal, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and histology of the cyclic hormone-mediated processes within the endometrium is indispensable. In this paper we give an overview of uterine growth and development, anatomy, basic histology, aging, spontaneous pathology, and the techniques to study the endometrium in-life. In addtion, a comprehensive description of the receptor-mediated, hormone-driven morphological changes during the menstrual cycle in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is given. Where possible, differences between the macaque and human endometria are discussed.