Color Doppler Evaluation of the Retrobulbar Hemodynamic Changes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: COPD and Retrobulbar Hemodynamic Changes

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using color Doppler ultrasonography, and to compare the results with those of healthy control subjects. The control group consisted of 35 healthy subjects who had no systemic problems, while the study group consisted of 60 patients with the diagnosis of COPD. Patients with COPD were grouped according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Twenty patients of stage 1 COPD (mild airflow limitation), stage 2 COPD (moderate airflow limitation), or stage 3 COPD (severe airflow limitation) were included in the groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Measurements were performed in both eyes of each participant. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and posterior ciliary artery (PCA). The RI and PI measurements of the OA, CRA, and PCA were significantly higher in group 3 when compared to the control group and groups 1 and 2. These significances were not observed when PSV and EDV values were compared. There were also no significant differences between groups 1, 2, and control patients, when mean PSV, EDV, RI, and PI values of all arteries were compared. None of the above parameters showed statistical significance when mean RI, PI, PSV, and EDV were compared between left and right eyes. Severe (stage 3) COPD is associated with impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics. Increased hypoxia and vascular mediators may be suggested in etiology.

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