We report on the pre- and postnatal cytogenetic, molecular genetic and clinical findings in monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant for trisomy 18. Structural anomalies were identified in one of the twins on prenatal ultrasound examination at 20 weeks' gestation and sampling of amniotic fluid from both sacs was performed for karyotyping. This revealed trisomy 18 in the twin with abnormalities and a normal karyotype in the other twin. Elective Cesarean section was performed at 31 + 5 weeks and the aneuploid twin died shortly after delivery. The surviving twin showed low-grade mosaicism for trisomy 18 on postnatal analysis but has shown normal development. For prenatal diagnosis in monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy the sampling of both amniotic sacs is recommended, especially if one twin has structural anomalies on ultrasound scan. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.