To examine the distribution of mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 12, 22, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation in singleton pregnancies which develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and examine the performance of this biomarker in screening for PE.Methods
MAP was measured in 77 343 cases at 11–13 weeks, in 31 120 cases at 19–24 weeks, in 29 802 at 30–34 weeks and 5543 at 35–37 weeks. Bayes' theorem was used to combine the a-priori risk from maternal characteristics and medical history with MAP. The performance of screening for PE requiring delivery < 32, at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 and ≥ 37 weeks' gestation was estimated.Results
In pregnancies that developed PE, MAP was increased and the separation in multiples of the median (MoM) values from normal was greater with an earlier, compared to later, gestational age at which delivery for PE became necessary. Additionally, the slope of the regression lines of MAP MoM with gestational age at delivery in pregnancies that developed PE increased with advancing gestational age at screening. The detection rate (DR), at a false-positive rate of 10%, for PE delivering < 32 weeks was 66% and 72% with screening at 12 and 22 weeks, respectively. The DR for PE delivering at 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks was 54%, 56% and 81% with screening at 12, 22 and 32 weeks. The DR for PE delivering ≥ 37 weeks was 45%, 43%, 49% and 59% with screening at 12, 22, 32 and 36 weeks, respectively.Conclusions
The performance of combined screening with maternal factors and MAP is superior in screening for early, compared to late, PE and, to a certain extent, improves with advancing gestational age at screening.