High nonlinearities in Langevin transducer: A comprehensive model

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★ We model a resonant power transducer at a high level of dynamic mechanical stress. ★ We include mechanical equation using electrostriction. ★ We considered dielectric part as a non linear function of equivalent electric field and mechanical stress. ★ We obtain typical resonance nonlinearities. ★ Hysteresis of the resonance frequency, asymmetric resonance peak, diminution of mechanical quality factor.

The design and simulation of power transducers are difficult since piezoelectric, dielectric and elastic properties of ferroelectric materials differ from linear behavior when driven at large levels. This paper is devoted to modeling of a resonant power transducer at a high level of dynamic mechanical stress. The power transducer is subjected to a sine electrical field E of varying frequency which was considered as the excitation of the transducer.

The mechanical equation of the piezoelectric element is written using electrostriction. The dielectric part is written as a nonlinear function of an equivalent electric field including stress influence (scaling relationship between electric field and mechanical stress). Using various simulations, we show then that typical resonance nonlinearities are obtained, such as jump phenomenon of transducer speed amplitude and phase, resonance peak that become asymmetric, and diminution of mechanical quality factor. As a consequence, we state that those typical nonlinearities are only due to dielectric nonlinearities, in good correlation with typical ferroelectric behavior. Moreover, this demonstrates the usefulness of scaling relationships in ferroelectrics, which explain static depoling under stress and butterfly strain hysteresis loop. The same scaling law gives here several nonlinearities for resonant transducers as well.

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