Dual energy time reversed elastic wave propagation and nonlinear signal processing for localisation and depth-profiling of near-surface defects: A simulation study

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★ High sensitivity detection of planar nonlinear defects parallel to the surface based on dual energy Time Reversal. ★ For sweep excitation using the lower frequency range, a higher sensitivity for deeper defects can be reached. ★ In-plane focusing provides the best sensitivity for defects at/near the surface. ★ A link is made between macroscopic observations at the surface and the nonlinear behavior near the defects. ★ Simulation support is provided for single point receivers and extended transducers.

Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) relies on the activation of defects by wave energy that propagates through the medium. In general, the response of activated defects will not scale linearly with the excitation amplitude, and the resulting nonlinear signatures can be identified and used for quality inspection. The efficiency of NEWS based inspection methods is therefore intrinsically linked to the locally deposited activation energy at the defect zone and the ability to generate nonlinear signatures that exceed the noise level of acquisition. Time Reversal techniques allow focusing of high levels of energy in small areas, and are consequently very useful for the local activation of defected zones. In this report, numerical simulations are reported showing the potential of a combination consisting of dual energy reciprocal Time Reversal and nonlinearity filtering using the Scaling Subtraction Method. The method is applied to the detection of planar near-surface defects parallel to the surface in a 2D domain. The results are evaluated for sweep excitation at different frequency ranges; for point-like receiver as well as extended transducers, and for in-plane as well as out-of-plane focusing. The observable nonlinear response at the surface is linked to an effective nonlinearity within the medium based on the defect geometry and the distribution of the local stresses.

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