Sonodynamic inactivation of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureusin planktonic condition by curcumin under ultrasound sonication
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of difficult-to-treat infections. The present study aims to investigate sonodynamic inactivation of MRSA in planktonic condition using curcumin under ultrasound sonication. Dark toxicity of curcumin to MRSA was investigated to choose the concentration range of curcumin used in the study. The uptake of curcumin in MRSA was observed before ultrasound sonication. After sonication colony forming units (CFUs) and bacterial viability were investigated using fluorescence assay. Additionally, chromosomal DNA fragmentation was also analyzed. Curcumin showed no dark toxicity to MRSA in the concentration range of ≤500 μM. The maximum uptake of curcumin in MRSA occurred in 50 min after curcumin incubation. Counting of CFUs showed that curcumin had significantly sonodynamic killing effect on MRSA in a curcumin dose-dependent manner, and 5-log reduction in CFU was observed after curcumin treatment (40 μM) at room temperature in the dark for 50 min followed by exposure to ultrasound with intensity of 1.56 W/cm2 for 5 min. The ratio of green-fluorescent intensity to red-fluorescent intensity was obviously decreased after curcumin treatment under ultrasound sonication. No significant change in chromosomal DNA was found in the cultured MRSA after the combined treatment of curcumin and ultrasound. These results demonstrated that sonodynamic action of curcumin had significant inactivation of MRSA in planktonic condition.