Ultrasound of Tropical and Infectious Diseases That Affect the Scrotum

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Ultrasonography of the scrotum permits assessment of testicular and extratesticular masses with high sensitivity. It can differentiate a variety of conditions involving the scrotum, testicles, and epididymis with similar clinical manifestations, including infectious and tropical diseases. The authors performed conventional and color Doppler ultrasonographic examinations in 76 patients who presented with scrotal pain, swelling, and/or tenderness. Their diagnoses included sexually transmitted disease (eg, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydial infection), tuberculosis, mumps, and various tropical diseases (eg, filariasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, paracoccidioidomycosis). The most common imaging findings were enlarged hypoechoic testes, hypervascularity, small hydroceles, and cutaneous edema. This report reviews these and other possible presentations of tropical and infectious diseases affecting the scrotum, emphasizing ultrasound findings that facilitate diagnosis.

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