The Value of Active Ultrasound Surveillance for Patients With Small Testicular Lesions
This study aimed to determine whether active ultrasound surveillance may obviate the need for surgical resection in selected patients with small testicular lesions (STLs). A retrospective 11-year review was conducted of adults who were diagnosed with an STL on scrotal ultrasonography and who either had orchiectomy or sonographic follow-up during a period of at least 3 months. A total of 101 subjects were enrolled. Ultrasound findings, clinical features, histopathology/follow-up imaging were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed to select independent risk factors for the diagnosis of malignancy. Seventeen (16.8%) subjects underwent immediate surgery, 8 (7.9%) of 101 underwent surgery after ultrasound follow-up, and 76 (75.3%) of 101 were followed with ultrasound only. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 7 months in the 8 patients who ultimately underwent surgery after ultrasound follow-up and from 6 to 84 months in the 76 patients followed up with ultrasound only. All 15 malignant cases underwent immediate surgery without follow-up sonography. The frequency of lesions, either benign at surgery or stable on ultrasound, was 85.1% (86 of 101; 95% confidence interval, 77%–91%). Logistic regression analysis showed that lesion size was the only independent risk factor for malignancy in hypoechoic STLs (P < 0.05). Most of the STLs were stable on serial sonograms and likely benign. Active ultrasound surveillance may be an appropriate management strategy in patients with STLs.