A Low-Cost Highly Configurable Phantom for Simulation of Imaging-Guided Endocavitary Procedures

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We developed a method to create customizable phantoms suitable for endocavitary imaging and interventional research, based on the fabrication of an acrylic phantom mold, and development of a phantom matrix composed of gelatin, agar, graphite particles, and propanol. Our phantom was mechanically stable, easily fabricated, and highly adjustable, and its ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed the qualification for the procedure guidance compared with the human prostate image using the same US system. To test the feasibility of the phantom for the research, the seeds placement guided by MRI/US fusion was performed, and the overall test error (distance from the seed center to the virtual lesion center in olives) was 2.59 ± 0.59 mm. We have created a simple, low-cost, configurable, gelatin-based phantom and tested its feasibility for simulating endorectal interventional US procedures. The design of the phantom mold and matrix is likely to be useful to the broader medical training community, and the preliminary data from the experiment of MRI/US-guided seeds placement showed its potential to test the clinical hypothesis in US research.

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