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In this study we assessed academic and demographic factors, including parental status, associated with men and women entering urology residency.An anonymous, Internet based survey was created, asking about academic and demographic characteristics at the time of residency application. The survey was e-mailed to 1,184 urology residents and fellows on 3 occasions. E-mail addresses were obtained through the AUA (American Urological Association) website, PubMed® or familiar contacts. Subjects were excluded from analysis if they had completed training, trained outside of the United States or if they had nonworking e-mail addresses. Chi-squared testing and logistic regression analysis were performed.A total of 215 responses were suitable for analysis (150 men, 65 women). There were no significant differences between successful male and female applicants in age, relationship status, AOA (American Osteopathic Association) membership, publication status or medical school ranking. Successful male applicants were significantly more likely to have children than female applicants at residency application (18% vs 3.1%, OR 6.91, p=0.0038). Significance persisted on multivariable analysis after adjusting for age and relationship status (OR 6.75, p=0.0185).Despite similar demographics and academic achievements, successful female applicants to urology residency are less likely to have children upon residency application. Given the challenges women face in childbearing later in their careers, efforts should be considered to foster an academic and professional environment that enables them to have children earlier if they so choose.