Soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin and auto-antibodies to human vascular endothelial-cadherin in human diseases: Two new biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction

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Vascular endothelial-cadherin is the most important transmembrane component of endothelial adherens junctions, exclusively expressed by endothelial cells in all types of vessels. Targeting either the extracellular domain or the cytoplasmic tail deleteriously affects the junctional strength and leads to vascular permeability. Recently, cytokine-induced phosphorylation of the vascular endothelial-cadherin cytoplasmic domain was reported to trigger cleavage of its extracellular domain, producing the soluble form of the protein – soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin. Hence, the presence of soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin or auto-antibodies to human vascular endothelial-cadherin in human serum could signalize the presence of vascular abnormalities. This systematic review covers many human studies reporting increased levels of soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin, as well as auto-antibodies to human vascular endothelial-cadherin, which could be promising biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in a large panel of diseases.

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