Aortic diseases include a wide range of pathological conditions: aortic aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, acute aortic syndromes, atherosclerotic and inflammatory conditions, genetic diseases and congenital anomalies. Acute aortic syndromes have acute onset and may be life-threatening. They include aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating aortic ulcer and traumatic aortic injury. Pain is the common denominator to all acute aortic syndromes. Pain occurs regardless of age, gender and other associated clinical conditions. In this review, we deal with the main findings in the clinical setting and the most recent indications for diagnostic imaging, which are aimed to start an appropriate treatment and improve the short- and long-term prognosis of these patients.