Outcomes of Endovascular AAA Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy Using Adjunctive Balloon-Expandable Stents


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Abstract

Hostile neck anatomy remains the predominant reason that patients are denied endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). We reviewed our experience of EVAR with use of prophylactic adjunctive proximal balloon-expandable stents in patients with hostile neck anatomy and adjunctive proximal balloon-expandable stents in patients with type I endoleaks. Of 140 patients who underwent EVAR between 2000 and 2004, we reviewed data for 19 patients in whom we used proximal balloon-expandable stents. By high-resolution computed tomography scan or angiography, hostile neck anatomy was classified as length <15 mm, neck diameters ≥26 mm, circumferential thrombus at the proximal neck, angulated neck ≥60 degrees, and neck bulge or reverse taper necks. Patients were considered to have hostile anatomy if they met 1 or more of the above-cited criteria. All patients underwent AAA repair with commercially available endograft systems, Zenith (Cook, Bloomington, IN) and AneuRx (Medtronic/AVE, Minneapolis, MN). Balloon-expandable stents utilized included Cordis-Palmaz stents (17/19) and eV3 Max stents (2/19). Stents were deployed in the proximal graft with transrenal extension. AneuRx (18/19) and Zenith (1/19) endografts were used in all of the patients. Of the 19 patients, 15 had prophylactic stent placement for known hostile neck anatomy and 4 patients had stent placement for type I endoleak. Assisted primary technical success was achieved in all patients. Three patients had maldeployment of the endograft or proximal stent requiring additional endovascular interventions at the time of surgery. No endografts were deployed too low requiring stent placement. Procedure-related complications occurred in 2 of 19 patients. These included 1 operative death secondary to pneumonia and 1 patient who developed progressive renal failure. Short-term clinical success was achieved in 17 of 19 patients. Two patients required secondary interventions, 1 due to device migration with secondary conversion to open repair, and an endoleak, which, on angiogram, was a large type II endoleak successfully treated with coiling of the inferior mesenteric artery. One patient was observed to have a type II endoleak with no associated aneurysm enlargement. Short-term results suggest the use of prophylactic adjunctive balloon-expandable stents may decrease the incidence of secondary interventions related to hostile neck anatomy when used as an adjunctive measure with EVAR. Based on our experience, we feel EVAR may be offered to an expanded patient population with hostile neck anatomy with use of prophylactic balloon-expandable stents.

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