Assessing the Perioperative Safety of Common Femoral Endarterectomy in the Endovascular Era

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Introduction:Common femoral endarterectomy (CFE) has historically been the preferred treatment for atherosclerotic lesions involving the common femoral artery. The objectives of this study are to delineate the safety of this open procedure in the endovascular era, establish contemporary benchmarks for morbidity and mortality after CFE, and identify the subgroup of patients at increased risk of postoperative adverse events.Methods:Patients undergoing elective CFE in the 2007 to 2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database were examined. Univariate analyses were used to identify the factors associated with major morbidity and mortality. Significant variables by univariate analysis were used to create multivariate logistic regression models for morbidity and mortality.Results:A total of 1513 patients underwent elective CFE. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.5%. Postoperative morbidities included cardiac (1.0%), pulmonary (1.9%), renal (0.4%), urinary tract infection (1.7%), thromboembolic (0.5%), neurologic (0.4%), sepsis (2.7%), superficial (6.3%), and deep surgical site complications (2.0%). At least 1 complication, including major and minor, was seen in 7.9% of the patients. By multivariate analysis, partial- and total-dependent functional status (odds ratio [OR] 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-28.4 and OR 21.3, 95% CI 3.3-139.4) and dyspnea at rest (OR 8.2, 95% 1.2-58.8) predicted mortality. Independent predictors of morbidity include steroid use (OR 2.4, 95% 1.4-4.1), diabetes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4), and obesity (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4).Discussion:Overall, CFE is tolerated well by the majority of patients with peripheral arterial disease. These results affirm the safety of CFE and can still be used as standard first-line therapy in most patients. Long-term results for endovascular interventions need to be studied to see whether high-risk patients that we identified for CFE would benefit more from an endovascular approach.

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