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There is no detailed information available about trend in the morphological change after conservative medical treatment in patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD).We enrolled 27 consecutive patients with symptomatic SISMAD who underwent conservative medical treatment between 2006 and 2015. The long-term prognosis, natural history, and serial follow-up computed tomography (CT) findings of risk factors of rupture such as arterial diameter and false lumen enhancement were retrospectively assessed.Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection usually developed in middle-aged men around 50 years old who had a history of smoking. Follow-up CT was performed at 1 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and after 12 months. Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) maximum diameter was 10.3 mm (quartile 9.5-11.3) on initial CT and expanded in 47.1% patients during 1- to 6-month follow-up, which decreased over time (P < .001 at 7- to 12-month follow-up, P = .001 after 12-month follow-up). On the other hand, false lumen enhancements were revealed in 9 (33.3%) patients on initial CT. The size of false lumen enhancement was expanded in the longest diameter in 35.3% patients and in shortest diameter in 29.4% during 1- to 6-month follow-up. However, the size of false lumen decreased in all patients after 12-month follow-up. All patients were alive without arterial aneurysm rupture and hospital readmission during the median of 523 days (170-799) study period.We demonstrated that both SMA maximum diameter and false lumen enhancement were transiently expanded in some patients during 6-month follow-up, but no longer expanded after 12-month follow-up. Patients with symptomatic SISMAD could be treated medically with scheduled careful follow-up CT evaluations.