Surgical and Antimicrobial Management of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Due to Q Fever: A Case Report and Brief Review

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Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, has been associated with vascular infection and aneurysm formation. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman from Iraq who presented with long-standing malaise as well as vague chest and shoulder discomfort and was found to have a saccular aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. Serology assays were positive for chronic C burnetii infection. She was treated with successful aneurysm resection and aortic replacement with a rifampin-impregnated Maquet Hemashield (TM) Dacron interposition graft interposition graft in addition to 18 months of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. The patient is without evidence of recurrent infection on follow-up at 3 years. To our knowledge, this is the first case of aortic aneurysm secondary to Q fever reported in the United States. We review the diagnosis, surgical management, antibiotic therapy, and surveillance of a thoracic aortic aneurysm secondary to Q fever.

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