Arterioenteric Fistulae Due to Pseudoaneurysms of the Right Common Iliac and Splanchnic Vessels Presenting as Upper GI Bleed

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Abstract

Arterial pseudoaneurysms are relatively rare complications of the vascular system. Many cases may remain asymptomatic for a lifetime only to be discovered incidentally, whereas others may cause fatal hemorrhage. Majority of cases present with local compressive symptoms. Rarely, it has been implicated as an etiology for gastrointestinal (GI) bleed by eroding into an adjacent bowel, with splanchnic pseudoaneurysm being more commonly responsible as compared to peripheral ones. Although rare, they are an important consideration because of the high mortality rate. They require a high index of suspicion with prompt diagnosis and expedient treatment, either surgical or endovascular. In this study, we report a case series of a right iliacoduodenal and 2 splanchnic pseudoaneurysms presenting as upper GI bleeding. These 3 cases presented with occult source of hematemesis due to the formation of arterioenteric fistula. Also discussed are the diagnostic approach used and successful treatment methods, which included placing endoprosthesis in the aorta and common iliac artery and endovascular coiling for respective cases. To the best of our knowledge, such a case of common iliac pseudoaneurysm presenting with massive hematemesis due to fistulization into duodenum has never been reported previously.

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