Endovascular Treatment of 12 Cases of Renal Arteriovenous Malformations: The Experience of 1 Center and an Overview of the Literature

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Objectives:Congenital renal arteriovenous malformations (rAVMs) represent rare vascular diseases. The heterogeneous vascular architecture of each rAVM determines the endovascular treatment techniques employed. We reported our experience with the endovascular treatment of a series of rAVMs.Materials:This retrospective study consisted of 12 patients with 12 rAVMs who underwent renal arterial embolization (RAE) in our hospital. Embolic materials, including particles, liquid embolic agents (n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate, Onyx, and ethanol), and coils, were selectively used based on the decisions of interventional radiologists. Technical success was defined as the complete occlusion of the feeding arteries and nidus on postprocedure renal arteriography. Clinical success was defined as the resolution of hematuria or the disappearance of rAVM-relevant symptoms.Results:The median follow-up period was 13.5 months (range: 4-72). The technical success based on 12 procedures in 12 patients was 83.3% (10 of 12). In the 2 procedures that technically failed, the existence of multiple fine feeding arteries arising from the proximal portion of different segmental renal arteries explains the incomplete embolization. One of the 2 patients achieved clinical success without additional RAE. The other patient had recurrent hematuria 25 months after initial treatment, which was successfully managed conservatively with hemostatic agents. Thus, the clinical success was 91.7% (11 of 12).Conclusions:Renal artery embolization with the selective use of various embolic materials is an effective treatment for patients with rAVMs. The existence of multiple fine feeding vessels arising from the proximal portion of different segmental renal arteries is likely to affect the technical success of treatment.

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