Carotid Pseudoaneurysm After Eversion Endarterectomy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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Abstract

Background:

Pseudoaneurysm (PA) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication, with an incidence lower than 1%. Most of the cases described report PAs after carotid patch angioplasty and are associated with infection, often caused by Staphylococci. The management of PAs can be surgical, endovascular, or hybrid.

Methods:

We herein present the case of an infected carotid PA 27 days after an eversion CEA. We performed a common to internal carotid bypass with the interposition of great saphenous vein (GSV) associated with specific polyantibiotic therapy for 4 weeks. We searched the PubMed database for reviews and cases reports for patients who developed carotid PA after primary repair CEA in the period between 1969 and 2017.

Results:

We identified 21 cases of primary closure post-CEA PAs in the literature. In almost 60% of patients, infection was detected. Open surgery was performed in all the cases; in 1 case, an hybrid approach was preferred. In 52% of cases, a vein graft/patch or primary closure was chosen; in 3 cases, ligation was preferred, and in 1 case, a polyester graft was used.

Conclusion:

In our experience and with the evidence observed in the literature, open surgery with GSV interposition is the safest treatment in infected carotid PAs. The endovascular approach must be performed only in proven noninfectious cases. A bridge technique with the insertion of a stent followed by open surgery repair can be an option in emergency cases.

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