Anatomical Considerations and Open Surgery to Treat Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

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Introduction:Historically, the open approach to the abdominal aorta has been transperitoneal (TP). In comparison, a retroperitoneal (RP) incision exposes the lateral wall of the suprarenal aorta for clamp application and midline structures such as the duodenum and pancreas are not encountered. Proximal clamp position for open repair of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (JR-AAA) is suprarenal, supra-superior mesenteric, or supraceliac. While RP and TP approaches have previously been compared for physiological reasons, there are currently no randomized controlled trials comparing these methods from an anatomical perspective.Aims:The primary aim is to examine the evidence for adopting an RP approach for JR-AAA and compare it with TP approach from an anatomical perspective. The secondary aim is to assess optimum proximal clamp position and its effect on renal function and mortality for the 2 approaches.Methods/Design:Literature was reviewed searching databases Medline and Embase for studies on clamp positioning in JR-AAA repair using a TP or RP approach, up to December 2017.Conclusions:There is no clear evidence for the optimum cross-clamp position for open repair of JR-AAAs. More proximal clamps provide adequate operative space with the possible downside of increased afterload leading to visceral and renal ischemia. Clamps placed inferior to the superior mesenteric artery allow continued bowel and hepatic perfusion with the potential to cause trauma to the adjacent aortic branches during application. As far as the optimum approach is concerned, many series show a strong trend for RP as a more proximal clamp is required. Significant numbers develop renal failure after JR-AAA repair, with most recovering fully irrespective of the clamp position.

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