The right mammary gland of 12 lactating goats was inoculated intracisternally with 1 ml of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mcc) containing 106 colony-forming units (CFU), while their left mammary halves received 1 ml of sterile PPLO broth only. Two goats served as uninfected controls. The clinical mastitis that developed in the infected mammary halves within 24 h was initially acute but became increasingly chronic by the end of the experiment at 24 days post inoculation (DPI). The disease was characterized by atrophy of the infected mammary halves, leading to marked agalactia and an increase in somatic cell counts, with a preponderance of neutrophils initially and lymphocytes later. The Mycoplasma was re-isolated from infected mammary secretions up to 16 DPI but not from blood. Histopathology revealed that the mastitis was acute and purulent initially, followed by infiltration of lymphonuclear cells and fibroplasia in the lymphomononuclear cells and fibroplasia in the interacinar tissue, and later by massive fibrosis. Immunohistology demonstrated the presence of Mycoplasma-like bodies localized mainly on the surface of acinar/duct epithelial cells. The studies showed that Mcc was highly pathogenic in the caprine mammary gland.